The Jim Fortin Podcast – E75 – Why changing your mindset never works


You’re listening to episode
number 75 of the Transform Your Life From the Inside Out
Podcast. In this episode I talk about why changing your mindset
never works. Now, I’m sure you’ve heard it your entire
lifetime that you have to change your mindset. Well, as you’re
going to discover in this episode, it doesn’t wor, so stay
tuned. Hi, I’m Jim Fortin, and you’re
about to start Transforming Your Life from the inside out with
this podcast. I’m widely considered the leader in
subconscious transformation and I’ve coached super achievers all
around the world for over 25 years. Here, you’re going to
find no rah rah motivation and no hype because this podcast is
a combination of brain science, transformational psychology, and
ancient wisdom all rolled into one to take your life to levels
you’ve never thought possible. If you’re wanting a lot more in
life, to feel better, to heal, to have peace of mind, to feel
powerful and alive, and to bring more abundance and prosperity
into your life, then this podcast is for you because
you’re going to start learning how to master your mind and
evolve your consciousness. And when you do that, anything you
want then becomes possible for you. I’m glad you’re here. Before I get started with this
episode, why changing your mindset never works, I want to
extend a sincere heartfelt thank you to every one of you. I
talked to one of my project managers today and I don’t know
how long you’ve been listening to the podcast, but we only
started last spring. And as of today, we have hit over 500,000
downloads and that’s because of you and you sharing the podcast
with your friends and family. And candidly also it’s because I
know the content works and it helps many of you. I constantly
get emails from you guys, the support team, everything goes to
support and the support team just forwards to me the emails
when you guys are like, “Hey, I had this breakthrough”, etc. and
we get a lot, you know, we get them every day. So thank you so
much for, for allowing me to, as I’ve said before live my Dharma
and allowing me to serve you guys. I do want to share a
thought here that’s not in this episode. It’s not about this
episode, but it’s about alignment. And a lot of people
look at me and they’re like, “Jim, you know, you shifted
gears from persuasion and influence a couple of years ago,
even though you’ve been teaching transformation for many, many
years, you started focusing only on transformation and your
business just exploded.” I mean, it’s in the stratosphere. You
know when you look at statistics, I mean, we’ll do a
million downloads our very first year of having the podcast and
that’s like in the stratosphere, it just doesn’t happen for most
people. And people ask me, you know, “Jim, what are you
doing?,” you know, even though I’ve got a marketing team, and
I’ve been in marketing for a lot of years, really advanced
marketing, online marketing. People will say things like “You
know you break every internet marketing rule there is and
you’re still bringing in multiple seven figures per year.
What are you doing? How is this happening?” Well, let me share
with you my perspective before we go into the topic this week.
In my perspective and my knowing is that I’m aligned. Now, full transparency many
years ago a friend of mine said, he said to me he goes you know,
“Jim, have you ever considered that maybe you should stop
teaching persuasion and influence and maybe you should
start only doing transformation work?” And back then I’m like,
“No, no, no, I’ve done persuasion and influence for a
lot of years I’m really good at it. People pay me great money, I
built the business” etc etc. All this, you know, jargon coming
out of my head. And literally when I look back, he was
correct. I should have left, well, you never “could have,
should have” because whatever happened is what happened back
then. But once I stepped into the transformational work full
time, I became what I call aligned. And when you, when you
get aligned, it’s kind of like the floodgates just open for
you. It’s like the universe just actually says, “Okay, we’re
going to put a tailwind behind you. You’re finally doing what
you’re supposed to be doing. We’re going to put a tailwind
behind you and let’s go.” Yet so many people. They’re not aligned
because they’re working in the external 3D world, meaning their
just everyday life. And so many people are trying to hustle and
make money and do things and that’s just not the way that I
work. Where I work from, which is my alignment is, how many
lives can I change how many people’s lives can I affect? And
what I tell people is that so many people spend their entire
lifetime looking for their purpos and what I want to share
with you is your purpose is not outside of you. Your purpose is
inside of you and your purpose on this planet is to align
yourself, and that is to align your lower-self, meaning the
identity you call yourself in the physical body, to align your
lower-self with your higher-self. And I promise you
when you’re fully aligned with your lower and your higher
selves, magic will happen. So again, thank you so much. I
mean, I just, I’m so honored. Thank you so much for allowing
me to serve. All right, this week’s episode
why changing your mindset never works. You know, I’m just
exhaling here because you’ve heard 1,000 times and even more
than that, like 10,000 times in your lifetime. And your parents
might have told you as a kid or your coaches or your teachers,
you know, “you’ve got to have the right mindset and you’ve got
to change your mindset.” You hear you hear that all the time,
“you’ve got to change your mindset.” And you see all the
memes and all the videos and all the motivational speakers and
all the personalities and all the blah blah, talking heads on
Facebook and Instagram and Twitter and Social Media and
they’re all telling you, “change your mindset change your
mindset.” What was interesting is, several years back there was
this person, it was a group, back when I used to be part of
groups on Facebook, and this person said in the room, she
said, it was for real estate agents, which I was not, but I
used to coach a lot of agents. And she said, in her post, “If
you want to be a successful agent, you have to change your
mindset.” And she was preaching it. And I clicked her profile
and just did a little, you know, investigation of her, not, and I
don’t mean literally investigation, just kind of, you
know, looking at her profile and stuff like that, apparently from
the outside looking in, and she was not a very successful agent.
So what I’m guessing is that she buys into the cultural myth that
you have to change your mindset, or perhaps even somebody that
day or whatever told her and it’s fresh on our mind, that if
she wanted to be successful that she had to change your mindset. Regardless, we live in a world
that has a serious lack of understanding about, you know,
us human beings, and how we work. So you’re going to hear me
say some things in this episode, you might have heard me say
before, I want to say in a different way, and I want to
bring some points home to you. Not only that, if you’re new
here, and it’s not because I’m saying so, it’s because I hear
it so much. I mean, I constantly, if you ask me what I
hear more than anything else about feedback on the podcast is
many, many times I think what I hear more than anything is
people saying, “You know what, I started from Episode Number one,
and I went all the way through, and it just, it makes so much
sense and it builds on itself.” Well, that wasn’t the intention
when we started, but that’s how it’s working. So what I’m
sharing with you right now, I don’t know when you started
listening, but I strongly urge you based upon the experiences
of thousands and thousands and thousands of people that have
listened and downloaded, is go back to the very first episode
and start there. I also want to say this. It would probably
serve you well, every one of you, and I say this with
humbleness because I’ll bring it back to me, is even if you’ve
listened to all the episodes, go back and start again. And then
again, why? Because repetition is the mother of all learning.
And even myself, you know, my mentors and my coaches and
stuff. I keep our coaching calls and I go back and I listen and I
listen and I listen, because many times what happens is our
brain filters out literally, if I say one thing you’re
interested in, you actually start focusing on that and you
filter out everything else that I say. And then you’ll listen to
it again later and say, “Whoa, I must have been asleep because I
missed a lot of what he said.” That’s why I say go back to the
very beginning and if you’ve already done that, then listen
to the episodes multiple times because my goal with this
episode was not to just be information but to be
transformation for you. Okay, so why changing your
mindset never works. So what I want to share with you is we’ve
all been taught that and again, it’s screamed at us every single
day with memes and the personalities and everything
else. But changing or trying to change your mindset is a broken
strategy. And when I say strategy, I mean just sequence
of steps that gets you from point A to point B, it is a
broken strategy. And I’m going to share with you in just a bit
why it’s a broken strategy and actually, it keeps you trapped.
So, as I’ve said many times in the title, you know, and the
title is “Why Changing Your Mindset Never Works,” is you
might have heard me say that before in other episodes,
because I don’t know how many episodes you’ve listened to. But
hopefully, I can actually give you a perspective in this
episode that finally at least brings it together and ties it
to why changing your mindset never works, and you get it and
you start shifting your behavior. And you shift it in a
way, and you focus on things that you know that are going to
get you the outcomes that you want. Now, let’s look at the behavior.
How many times have you said to yourself about some aspect of
your life- And by the way, anytime we- I’ll come back to
what I was saying there, anytime we actually say that we want to
change our mindset, what we’re really saying is that you want
to change a habit. So the conversational loop that I just
started prior to my last comment is how many times have you
actually said I want to change my mindset meaning, I want to,
let’s say for example, a big one, and this is 80% of the
American population is overweight. And let’s say for
example, that you say that you want to go on a diet. And you do
this on a Friday and so Saturday you’re eating all the you know,
the Cheetos and Fritos and the, you know, the Ho-Ho’s and the
Ding Dongs and the ice cream and everything and then Sunday,
you’re cleaning out your cupboards and your freezer and
refrigerator and everything else. And then you’re kinda
like, “Oh exhale on Monday, I’m going to start my diet,” and
you’re all excited about your diet. Now, notice what you’ve
done. You are in the process. This whole process is a process
of changing your mindset. Now, you’ve heard me use this very
same example before. Monday you’re doing pretty good feeling
good that you’re air quote, “changing your life.” Tuesday
you’re doing pretty good. Wednesday you’re maybe starting
to teeter a little bit, you got to lunch and you see the nachos
or smell the pizza, the cheese burgers or whatever. And then
you know what Thursday you’re starting to teeter a little bit.
And then Friday, you’re like, “You know, I’ve been really good
the past week, you know, since Monday. I’m going to reward
myself, and I’m going to have nachos today.” And then guess
what? By Monday, you’re right back to your old behaviors
again. So what happened? I mean, literally, you just air quote,
“changed your mindset” less than a week ago, and you’re right
back to your old behaviors again. Well, here’s why changing your
mindset doesn’t work. When we say mindset, what we’re really
saying is thought processes or thinking. So when you say for
example, that you’re going to go on a diet or stop eating sugar
or eating Diet Coke or go to the gym or, you know, get a healthy
mindset or whatever. What’s happening here is when we look
at the brain, we’ve talked before many times I’m sure if
you’ve listened for any time, you’ve heard me talk about the
reptilian part of the brain, the oldest part of the brain, the
limbic system, which is the the emotional part of the brain, and
the prefrontal cortex, which is the largest part of the brain
and the thinking part of the brain. Anytime that you say you
want to change your mindset, notice, that doesn’t come from
the limbic system. It doesn’t come from the reptilian part of
the brain, which is the oldest part of the brain, which is
fight or flight. It comes from the prefrontal cortex, which is
the thinking part of the brain, because you think that you want
to change your mindset. Now, back to what I said
earlier, anytime that you say you want to change your mindset,
you’re saying that you really want to change a habit? Well,
habit comes not from the prefrontal cortex, the thinking
part of the brain. And now many of us think we want to change
our habits. But habits come from the oldest part of the brain,
which is the reptilian part of the brain. So what I would urge
you to do if you have not yet and even if you have, go back,
and I believe it’s episode number five on habits. In that
episode, I’m pretty sure that I said, because it’s the
foundation of a lot of things that I do my coaching programs,
and I say it and people get it and they’re like, “Yep, I got
it. That makes sense,” but they really don’t get it but they
think that they got it- is everything that you have,
everything that you don’t have. Now let’s break this down even
further. Let’s just make this you know, crazy simple.
Everything you have, which is your car. Now, to what degree do
you have a car? Do you have a Ferrari? Or do you have a beat
up old 1972 Chevy? Your house, your money, your body, your
relationships, everything that you have, or everything that you
think that you want, which is prefrontal cortex, which you
don’t have it yet, is all habit. Let that soak in everything you
have, and you don’t have is a reflection of your habits. And
if you don’t have something, it’s because you do not have the
habits, you know, which will create that something that you,
prefrontal cortex the thing that you want. That’s why you change
your mindset to get something that you think that you want but
you don’t have the habits in the first place to be able to create
it. So, as I said in episode number
five, it’s not about changing your mindset, because look at
your life seriously, how? And I’m laughing because I see
myself and then years gone by and all this as well. But look
at your own life. Seriously, how many times I mean, if, let’s say
you want to make money and you want to change your mindset
about money, if you actually had $1, for every time you said you
would change your mindset about money, you would already be
wealthy, but but look at your life. And how many times have
you said, I’m going to change my mindset, I’m going to change my
mindset, and then you fail? So getting the outcomes that you
want is not about changing your mindset. It’s about what I call
changing your brain set. And when I say brain set, simply
what I mean is your reptilian you know, brain based habits.
Because see, you’ve heard me say before, probably you don’t get
what you want in life. You don’t get the mindset you think that
you want, what you get is your habits. So here’s something huge for a
lot of you guys. And I’ve said it before. And my whole
intention with this episode is that you know, what if you
didn’t get it when I said it before, it didn’t sink in, or
you missed it is that you really, really, times 100 like
big Las Vegas lights, I mean, it’s in front of your face, you
really, what I want you to do is stop focusing on your thinking.
I want, which is what, that’s contradictory to what you’ve
been taught, I want you to stop focusing on your mindset and
what you’re thinking and I want you to start focusing- Now let
me back up- I want you to stop thinking about the things that
you want and I want you to start focusing, start focusing on the
habits that will create the outcomes that you want. Now, a
little caveat there even your thinking can be habits. So I
want you to start focusing on thinking because you’ve got to
think to be able to change all this, but I want you to stop
thinking about “I’m going to create the house and the Ferrari
and the job and the million dollar business” and all that
and start thinking about what habits would I need to create
the outcomes that I want. Something I want to share with
you is this. And I’ve observed it in many, many people that I
coach, one of my mentors has observed that in me, and it
applies to me, it applies to you, it applies to most human
beings. First off is that we are the biggest liars to ourselves.
We literally, seriously, we lie to ourselves so much about
what’s possible for us or not possible for us. But what I want
to share with you is that your thinking can be seriously
seriously flawed. And what I mean by that is, you probably
get into a great deal of self deception. The thing about that
is that we actually think, “Oh, I can create that million dollar
a year income” or whatever it is. And truthfully, we’ve never
gotten anywhere close. We’ve never made more than $79,000 a
year. So in that moment, we’re in self deception because we’re
not even looking at Well, what habits what I need and what
identity what I need to create the million. We’re simply
focusing on the change, you know, change your mindset, etc,
prefrontal cortex thinking, and we’re not even looking. And then
we get into self deception. Now, here’s the unfortunate part as
well, is once we get into the self deception, and we don’t
create something, because we think that we air quote, “think
we can do it” is now we feel bad about ourselves. And people feel
shame, they feel bad, and they’re embarrassed and
everything else. And it’s a double whammy. So not only did
you not get what you want, but then you feel bad about not
getting what you thought that you wanted. So as you can see,
or hopefully it’s becoming obvious to you, is that changing
your mindset or working from that position, is simply a
broken strategy that can keep you trapped. Let me give you something else
here, some food for thought. Let’s say, for example, that I
put you in a box, and you’re literally trapped in the box,
and you’re like, “Hey, Jim, how do I get out of the box?” and I
say “Well, the only way to get out of the box is to read the
instructions. And the instructions are on the outside
of the box.” Well, what’s obvious is you have to get out
of the box, to read the instructions to know how to get
out of the box. Now, the reason I shared that with you is that’s
an analogy that Einstein said many years ago, he said, our
problem can never be solved at the level that it was created.
So let’s look at the levels of your mindset here very quickly,
I’m just giving this to you for food for thought. Now, whatever
you have in life right now is a reflection, obviously, of your
habits and when I say mindset, your unconscious identity, okay?
So you have this identity that has gotten you what you want or
not what you want, but what you have right now. However, if you
had a different identity, you would have different things.
Right? You would have more abundance in your life, more
prosperity, health, wellness, everything else, but you don’t
have it because it’s not a part of your subconscious identity.
So the subconscious identity that is created for you exactly
what you have is like being in the box is you can’t, you know,
see how to get out of the box unless you get out of the box.
The same thing, you can’t change your identity from inside the
identity, you have to step outside of your identity to
change your identity. You have to go to a higher level. And
I’ve shared with you guys before, well, let me just I’m
kind of fumbling here, but I’m trying to put some thoughts
together as we go. But where you’re working from right now is
it is at the top of your mindset. So you’re literally
already at the top of your mindset. So again, you have to go to a
higher level. Okay? And where do and how do we want like that?
I’m fumbling tonight, but let me just keep on going here. And by
the way, let me let me segway here for a second also. This is
a great lesson for a lot of you guys, me fumbling around here
with what I want to say. And the reason why is this, is because
I’m actually air quote “making mistakes.” And so many people
are afraid to put themselves out there because they’re afraid to
make a mistake. What I want to share with you is this- is that,
let me ask you, do you like perfect people? No, I don’t
think any of us really like perfect people. So I could have
had my editor edit this out. And I left it in here, mainly
because I didn’t want to back up again. And secondly, maybe I
could share, you know, a thought with you is that just put
yourself out there. You know, you want to be as professional
as possible. But you know what, I’m not perfect. And far from
it, and obviously, but what I’m sharing with you is that people
don’t like perfect people. And actually, this was a drawback
that Kennedy had back in 1960. It just seemed that Richard
Nixon was far less perfect than Kennedy. But Kennedy had the
mystique of being too perfect, which actually hurt him to some
degree. So anyway, I just use the example of me fumbling all
over the place to share with you is that people don’t like
perfect people. And people do like it when people mess up.
Why? Because it’s makes us all human and air quote, “normal.” Alright, let’s go back to the
topic this week. So I talked about going to a higher
identity. And how you do that I’m not going to go into it
here. But everything, as you know, in one of the early
episodes, episodes episode number, it’s in the top five.
The first five episodes is, everything is about identity,
and you are ruled by your identity. If you’re a smoker in
your identity, you’re a smoker in your behavior. So let’s go to
how to get outside the box. Easy- subconscious
reprogramming. There’s an episode on that as well, one of
the first five episodes, so I’m not going to go into
subconscious reprogramming, but I did refer a book in the early
episodes on subconscious reprogramming. And the book is
titled “How to Reprogram” or “The Power of Your Subconscious
Mind.” Gosh, I’m making mistakes left and right, or missteps left
and right, “Power of Your Subconscious Mind.” I want to
share with you the most powerful gift that you could ever learn
from this podcast and the most powerful thing that you could
ever take is the full realization that you can change
your life when you change your subconscious identity. I mean,
that literally is a lifetime tool, you can learn, you can
learn in the book that I just referred to you guys. But when
you learn to reprogram your subconscious mind, anything that
you want in life, and I do mean anything that you want, can be
yours. And I want to share an old
process that I shared with people many years ago, I’ve not
shared it on this podcast. And as much as I’m fumbling here,
I’m kind of like, what’s going to happen next, because the dogs
are here, and they’re like, the dogs gonna bark next, or FedEx
is going to come or something. But anyway, a technique that I
taught people many years ago is to write a letter to yourself.
And, you know, I’m 54 and back, I remember when I was in high
school and even college I wrote, you know, letters to my folks
and everything, to my mom. And when you you get a letter, you
read a letter, and a person tells you about something that’s
already happened- meaning they’re conveying you, hey,
here’s, you know the events of my life and the circumstances of
my life and you’re reading the letter as if everything’s
already happened. And it pretty much is or, you know, has
already happened because you’re reading about it and a letter.
So what you could do is you could write a letter to yourself
and in the letter, you write it in the letter as if everything
that you want to create in life, or B has already happened. Now,
hopefully, that’s clear. You want to write a letter to
yourself and you want to write it as if everything in the
letter has already happened to you. Make it simple, make it a
half a page long. And you could say, you know what, in the last
60 days, I’ve, you know, I’ve gone to my ideal weight, I’m
going to use the word lost even though a lot of people don’t use
it with weight loss, but I’ve lost eight pounds, I made an
additional $7,000 whatever it is. So I want you to write a
half page letter to yourself and write it as if everything in the
letter, meaning things you want to accomplish, has already
happened to you. Then, what I want you to do ideally is I want
you to read it to yourself three times a day as if it were true.
Now you can do it actually once a day as well. Or what I really
recommend is in the morning, when you wake up, at night
before you go to bed, and at lunchtime, reading it three
times a day. There’s a book and you can get
it on Amazon, I guess. But it’s a simple book, taking maybe 15
minutes to read. It’s over 100 years old, no one knows who
wrote it. And the book is titled “It works.” And it’s akin to
this example that I’m just sharing with you right now about
writing a letter to yourself. And the reason that this process
works is because there’s a part of your brain, there’s a part of
your brain that doesn’t know the difference between real and
imagined. And the more that you imagine something to be true,
the more the brain just actually, because it works on
repetition, the more that you imagine something to be true,
the more true it becomes of the brain, and we start to believe
it at a core identity level. So that’s one takeaway this episode
that I’ve never shared in any other episode. To recap, again,
is write a letter to yourself making a half a page. In the
letter, write it as if it’s already happened, meaning you’re
telling a story. It’s already happened or read it three times
a day, ideally, first thing when you wake up, last thing before
bed, and at lunchtime, if you can. Secondly, what I want to
suggest, if you’re new here or not been around that long, is go
back and listen to the episode on habits. I believe it’s
episode number five. So I i fumbled around enough in this
particular episode. So the point of this episode is a couple of
things. Number one, is, get out of your self deception, stop
fooling yourself that “Oh, I can just change my mindset and
everything’s going to like a magic wand, everything’s going
to just change for me.” I pretty much guarantee you that it’s not
going to happen that way. And if you want proof of that, go back
maybe some of your old journals or diaries or whatever, and look
at all the things that you wrote down, that were akin to you
changing your mind. said that never happened. The reason that
it never happened is because changing your mindset and the
way that people try to change it, which is prefrontal cortex
does not work. So what are your
transformational takeaways? I think are pretty simple at this
point, is changing your mindset does not work. What you want to
change- you’ve got plenty of tools here, you know at the
podcast, is you want to change your identity and your habits.
Those are two things you change those they do work, so stop
trying to change your mindset and start working on your brain
set. Well, this episode was well
getting through this one was a challenge. Okay, the next
episode, guys, as you will know and you here in the outro if you
have any questions, send them to [email protected] I do want
to point out also that at some point, I’m going to just be
transparent with you guys. These episodes can be a lot of work.
You know a lot of people, for example, that do podcasts, they
have a guest. They just sit there and chat with somebody for
30 minutes an hour, whatever send it to the editor. I don’t
have that here. I have to create every one of these episodes. And
I generally sit down I think through I don’t, you know, I
don’t have any notes. For the most part, I think through what
I want to say I’ll let it percolate for a day. But the
reason I’m telling you this is these are a lot of work. And at
some point, I’m going to want to shift the format. I’m thinking
what I might do a little later in the, well, next year is
somebody said, “Hey, Jim, I’ve got questions about prior
episodes. Would you be interested in doing a podcast
having a guest?” and I’m thinking we might go that
direction. I’m not committing to anything, but honestly, I’m
looking at a way to cut down on my workload, and I think we
might go that direction. And it would kind of be akin to the
financial guy, Dave Ramsey. All of his episodes are short people
just come on, they asked questions, and he coaches them
through their their finances. So anyway, I don’t know why that
popped in my mind, but I wanted to share that with you guys is
that we might be changing up format. Maybe in the first, you
know, quarter or something in the first half of 2020. Okay. So I got on that little,
you know, tangent there, because the team sends me a whole file
of questions. And I looked through and I look for questions
that I think are most relevant to the biggest, you know, the
biggest amount of you. And Vivek had a question for some reason
that just pulled to me. And it’s because it’s also not about the
topic of the question, but it’s also about beliefs and
indoctrination at an identity level. But Vivek’s question was,
is “How can I be rich and spiritual at the same time?” And
there’s so many places that I want to go with that question,
how can I be rich and spiritual at the same time? And a lot of
you might get it, but I’m going to share with you that this is
how we’re conditioned in this world. People believe that they
can’t be rich or spiritual at the same time, because they
learned that from someone and the exact opposite is true. You
live in an abundant universe and the more spiritual that you are,
the more wealth and abundance that you can bring into your
life. But a bigger point, overlying point here is that
Vivek is working from a paradigm that he learned in his life that
doesn’t work for him. So I’m going to address some of that in
the next episode. Okay, thanks for listening. And
again, we we hit 500,000 downloads this week and I’m
just, I’m honored, truly, truly blessed and just so grateful to
be able to serve. So again, a big hug to you. Thank you so
much. I’ll catch you over on the next episode. Bye bye. Thank you for listening to this
entire podcast. If you’re the kind of person who likes to help
others, then share this with your friends and family. You
know, if you found value, they will too, so please share via
your social media channels. Also, if you have questions, I’m
here to assist. You can email me questions to support at
jimfortin.com and I may even use your question for a future
podcast episode. Also, if you want transformational content
like this daily connect with me on Instagram. My Instagram name
is @iamjimfortin. Finally, I do have a personal request. I
believe that we’re all here to help others and to grow and
evolve ourselves. together, you and I, let’s help more people.
If you would, please leave a review on iTunes and a good one
by the way. I’d be grateful and through your assistance
together, we can transform more lives. Thanks for listening.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *