What did NASA’s Lunar Orbiter discover around the Moon’s craters? LRO 4K


The Moon may seem like a barren, uninteresting
world, but take a closer look at its surface, and you’ll find many interesting puzzles
about its past which are just waiting to be solved. The LRO, or the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter,
has been scanning the surface of the moon since 2009, taking super high-resolution shots
of its surface from various angles, giving us a view of the entire moon like never before. In the last episode of this series we looked
at the mountains on the Moon, and today we will look at some of the most interesting
craters found on its surface. I’m Alex McColgan, and you’re watching
Astrum, and together we will explore the surface of the moon, and give you a view and understanding
of our close neighbour that perhaps you’ve never had before. Because of the many surveying missions to
the moon over the years, the entire moon has been mapped out, and you can view all the
data obtained in a program called Quickmap, which I will post a link to in the description
in case you want to check it out for yourself. Zooming out as far as we can go, on the far
side of the moon we can find one of the biggest impact craters in the solar system, the Aitken
Basin at 2,500km across, which is interestingly where the Chang’e 4 Chinese mission landed
in January of this year. The LRO was even able to image the rover from
space! But without the rover as a size guide, what
you may immediately find unusual about the lunar surface is the complete inability to
judge distances and scales for the images you are looking at. This is due to the lack of an atmosphere,
the haze of which helps us judge distance on Earth, and things we are used to like trees
and buildings which help us judge scale, so I will always try and include some visuals
to help you see how big something is in this video. As you can see, the surface of the moon is
littered with craters. It doesn’t matter where you are on the moon,
there will be craters of various sizes. This implies that the surface is old and hasn’t
been renewed by lava eruptions from the mantle anytime recently, the most recent eruption
thought to have happened 1.2 billion years ago. There are an estimated 300,000 impact craters
over 1 km across on the side of the moon facing us, and millions more smaller than that, like
the ones you are currently looking at. The moon can have such small craters because
it has no atmosphere, meaning every meteorite heading for the moon will hit its surface. On Earth, most meteors burn up in the atmosphere. Just imagine how many shooting stars there
are each night, were it not for Earth’s atmosphere, every one of them would impact
our surface too. What’s interesting about each crater you
see here it that you can roughly estimate how old a crater is by how eroded it is. Craters which appear very smooth are much
older than craters with lighter substances surrounding them, with sharp and defined edges. The bright patches haven’t had so long to
have a weathering effect happen on them. But weathering on the moon? How can that be? Well, this weathering is not caused by water
or air, but rather but tiny micrometeor impacts and intense radiation from the Sun which dull
the thin outer layer of the Moon. If we speed along to the end of this image,
we can see a relatively fresh crater only a few hundred meters across. Using LRO’s narrow angle camera, we can
see a close-up view of the effects of such an impact on the lunar surface. These linear patterns are the effects of the
ejecta from the impact. Finer dust would have been blown across the
surface with some force, larger boulders not quite making it as far, although leaving a
trail from where they rolled away from the impact. The crater itself isn’t super clear in this
image due to the time in the lunar day this was taken, the Sun close to the horizon casting
long shadows across the surface, although you can still see fresh exposed material along
the crater wall. Comparing this to an old crater, here you
can see a much smoother and darker looking crater, although still brighter than the heavily
weathered surface in the surrounding area. What I like about this image though is that
zooming in, you can see some ejecta that landed from another impact off the image. Here’s a boulder that landed on the crater
wall and then rolled halfway down. The only thing with these top down perspectives
is that you don’t get a great concept of depth in the image. How shallow or deep can craters get? Luckily the LRO doesn’t just scan the surface,
but can take more oblique shots of the moon too, which can definitely help us appreciate
depth. Look at this fantastic image. This crater is around 21km across, and it
has some fascinating details all around it. Again, we can see the trails left by huge
boulders rolling down the slopes, and very bright walls implying it is a young crater,
yet darker material at the base. The contrasts are really quite vivid, and
it almost looks like some parts could have been liquid at some point. The impact would have initially melted the
rock into lava, which flowed to the bottom, collecting in pools which have since solidified. The impactor was likely 2km in diameter, and
hit the moon ten times faster than the speed of a bullet. That would have been some collision indeed! Another great image I have to show you is
this, a crater 10km across. What’s special about this one is its interestingly
raised rim. This is another example of rock melting from
the impact, but rather this time slopping beyond the rim and flowing down, before solidifying
again. If we look closely around the crater, you
can also see ejecta scattered across the surface, disturbing the ground and leaving brighter
patches exposed. See? Once you know what you are looking at, even
the Moon becomes very interesting. But these have been very pristine craters. What if a meteor lands somewhere a little
less conventional? Here is a crater within a crater. The impactor hit the wall of the larger crater,
meaning it has quite an unusual shape, although from a top down perspective, it still looks
quite circular. Just as a side note, this image is a true
colour image of the moon. Most other images of the moon are taken in
black and white to save bandwidth, astronomers prefer resolution over colour, although the
lowest resolution camera on the LRO is capable of colour, and this is an example of it. But certain craters can be unconventional
in other ways too. There’s a little understood phenomena on
the moon that scientists have so far struggled to explain, and that is cold patches found
on the moon after the Sun goes down. So far, we have really only focused on the
cameras equipped on the LRO, but it has a host of other instruments onboard, including
the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment which has mapped the Moon’s surface temperatures. There are two thousand points on the moon
that cool down more than the surrounding areas when the Sun goes down. When the Sun rises on the spots again, they
normalise their temperature and quickly blend in with the background. The only thing these spots seem to have in
common? They are always found around young craters
no smaller than 50m and no bigger than 2.3km. But the spots themselves are much larger than
the craters. Here’s a heat map of the crater I was just
showing you. White is the hottest parts of the image, blue
the coolest. As you can see, a large cool region surrounds
the young crater. There is an ongoing investigation to find
out the cause. What do you think it could be? There really were so many more images I could
have shown you today, but I’ll have to save them for next time. I just wanted to leave you with one final
image that I found breath-taking. This crater, found near the South Pole of
the Moon, is almost always in shadow. The Sun never rises high above the horizon
here, meaning only the peaks of the crater stick out enough to be enveloped in light. What you are left with is a stunning contrast,
almost like the yin and yang symbol. This is certainly my new desktop background
image. But this region isn’t just an eerily beautiful
place, but is actually one of the candidates for the future Artemis mission to the moon. The lunar South Pole is of particular importance
to future human missions as there is thought to be millions of tonnes of water ice found
in this region, at the bottom of craters like this, forever protected from the Sun’s rays. If there is to be a future colony on the Moon,
this is roughly where it would be located. So, there you have it! A sample of some of the most interesting craters
on the Moon. Enjoyed learning about our Moon today? As you can see, learning about science – or
maths for that matter – doesn’t have to be dull, as long as it’s done in a thought-provoking
and intriguing way. That’s why I’m a big fan of Brilliant. They have ton of interactive and engaging
courses for ambitious and curious people, who want to excel at problem solving and understanding the world. They have courses that will ease you into
geometry, physics, and maths, using real-world scenarios to help to conceptualise and realise
the problems. So give it a go! You can sign up for free today, and by using
the link brilliant.org/astrum/ you can get 20% off their annual Premium subscription
to get unlimited access to all of Brilliant’s interactive math, science and computer science
courses. Thanks for watching! If you liked this video, be sure to check
out my other flyover videos on the Moon, Mars and Earth! And a big thank you to my Patreons and Members
who support the channel. If you would like to support Astrum in making
future videos, check the links in the description! All the best and see you next time.

100 thoughts on “What did NASA’s Lunar Orbiter discover around the Moon’s craters? LRO 4K”

  1. Question. We see shooting stars on a regular basis. Earths bombarded by them. So why do we NEVER see a lunar impact? Ever? They all just magically miss the moon after being hit millions of times in the past?

  2. Areas of the moon that cool faster when periodically cast in shadows are likely more volatile in composition, losing more heat of vaporization in darkness. Another possibility is that materials there have higher thermal conductivity, so they conduct heat to cooler substrates less exposed to sunlight insolation (yeah, that's spelled correctly). Comparative thermal mapping at various times throughout the lunar day might facilitate comparisons that reveal the heat exchange & excursions as signatures of known materials.

  3. *** NOTICE THAT IN BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOS IT'S DIFFICULT TO DISTINGUISH RIVERS AND LAKES IN THE BOTTOMS OF CRATERS. I BUILT THE COMPUTER THAT ANALYZED THE PHOTOS OF VIET NAM, SO I CAN SPOT THE RIVERS EVEN IN BLACK AND WHITE. *** THIS SHIT WAS SECRET 40 YEARS AGO. AT 6;17 IN THIS VIDEO THERE ARE 2 RIVERS AND A SPRING IN THIS CRATER = SEE IF YOU CAN SPOT THEM.

  4. Loved the vid. The deepest craters are all the same depth, there are no canyons created by impacts. The hardest impact visually shows a massive star like pattern on the surface. All this points to at hard metal or dense rock surface below. The fine dust and rock fragments covering the moon are asteroids completely vaporized on impact and settled over time like sediment.

  5. I keep having these vivid dreams where the whole sky goes dark for a few minutes with the stars and moon blocked out so everything is pitch black, then suddenly it’s cleared up again to reveal all the stars… and I look up to see that the moon has been detonated at the core and the shock wave can be seen already heading for earth, then seconds later I can see multiple large spacecraft descending from the sky all the way to the horizon, followed by my neighborhood being attacked by uncountable drone ships in a hostile takeover by muscular humanoids who hop out on the ground to obliterate resistance and take prisoners as I hide in terror.
    I then wake up thinking that either I’ve watched too many movies or I should start making them……
    It seems like a really great strategy for attacking the earth though, if I think about it. The confusion of darkness covers preparations for the trap that will prevent humanity from seeing fighting back as a meaningful response in protecting the planet, giving a lose-lose ultimatum to every individual.

  6. The cooler areas are bound to contain metal possible Nickle from asteroids.
    Regolith tends to be a fluffy dusty material which doesn't transfer heat readily

  7. It's a shame the truth is still hidden from us. Early moon images where doctored to cover structures and equipment shown in Apollo photo's and video's. The moon is not what it seems. What they don't tell us is there are ancient Sumerian texts which tell of a time when there was no moon in the sky. They don't tell us why all the creators on the moon are of similar depth as if a shell lay beneath the surface. They don't tell us why most of the mass of the moon is on the far side as if material was removed from the inside to the outside. They don't tell us why the moon rings like a bell when impacted. They don't tell us why NASA photo's are manipulated to remove structures and other made objects. They don't tell us why energy waves are seen by amateur astronomers periodically covering the surface. They don't tell us why lights of different colors have been seen on the surface for 100 years. They don't tell us why a majority of the creators are on one side orientation as if the moon traveled through space to get to it's current location. Why don't they tells us the truth about the Moon?.

  8. I find this amazing and thank you for the links!! What I find so interesting is how does the moon get hit so often by rocks and the earth does not, at least I don't think it does.

  9. And all those "impact" craters are perfectly round? That would mean everything that ever hit the moon hit it at perfect right angles! That is lunacy 🙂 Statistically impossible!

  10. The cooler spots could have something to do with the weathering of the moon, giving older surface material a very mild insulation property compared to more recently disturbed surface around the newer meteorite craters which may contain material recently exposed (relatively speaking) and meteorite material with marginally different heat/insulation properties.

  11. @ 1:40 on this video….Humans see in COLOR….That is why we can not judge (size and scale) in "Black & White"….IN THE 21st CENTURY….WE ARE STILL BEING SENT "B & W" pictures?????? THIS IS BEING DONE ON PURPOSE!!!!!! Keeping the "TRUTH" Hidden in plain site.

  12. 1. C'mon it's all there in BLACK & WHITE;
    2. Yes, one of many cities on the moon at 2:10;
    3. Narrators skip right by artificial anomalies without any comment (= CIA);
    4. We are looking at planets thousands of LIGHT YEARS away, but what low-res' images we see are fuzzed out whenever interesting;
    5. BLACK & WHITE … Really?
    6. Fukk NASA.

  13. 1. C'mon it's all there in BLACK & WHITE;
    2. Yes, one of many cities on the moon at 2:10;
    3. Narrators skip right by artificial anomalies without any comment (= CIA);
    4. We are looking at planets thousands of LIGHT YEARS away, but what low-res' images we see are fuzzed out whenever interesting;
    5. BLACK & WHITE … Really?
    6. Fukk NASA.

  14. You are the one best candidate for post of teacher . Your voice made deep impact crater on listener just like asteroids did on moon .

  15. What would be cool is if you superimposed either buildings, cities, or terrestrial features (ie mountains, lakes, oceans, etc) to help give the scale more perspective.

  16. Sorry I don't understand what would weather the older craters not having air or any liquid water? I thought the tracks from our visit are still there….just curious

  17. Question, I'm going to assume that these images are taken from a radio image, like literally every image of space is.. So why are there shadows in the images?

  18. '
    did the moon own lava / magma / volcano on the moon ground before…
    or many asteroids / comets / meteors hits the moon ground many years ago

  19. Considering a tendency to judge

    Is it "a burning and pillage" by "knight templar" to protecting done by some European countries to 1)Alexandria Library, Egypt, (manuscripts = books) ?
    2)Jerusalem (gold items and Scriptures) ?
    3)Aztec City (codices ) ?

    Lost and found catutambs labyrinths and secret passages underground European citadels
    are part of not sci-fi movies.

  20. Depressing the best pictures we have from the moon, the other planets, and the other moons and bodies in our solar system are still low quality garbage.

  21. Hey, can you please make a video on Chandrayaan 2? It is the first rover to land on south side of the moon. I am sure it will be very interesting.

  22. You point out how many meteor showers we have on Terra, protected by our atmosphere…but you also say the lunar impact craters are mostly over a billion years old…do meteor showers NEVER affect the moon with larger impacts than micrometeorites?

  23. Bro, Already India's chandrayan 1 lunar mission landed an MIP (Moon Impact Probe),which landed on Shackleton crater and it have already declared the presence of water ice there. Thanks to India to discovering the water on moon. I am proud to be an Indian.JAI HINDH🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳.

  24. Yolo. There are mile high towers on the moon. I have seen it with my own eyes. Even captured the clip. Try that for science

  25. I love how a while back scientists said the moon is to perfect which suggests its artificial and hollow and was brought here from another solar system

  26. Kind of boring video, you missed all the interesting artifacts on the moon, mining equipment left in craters, tunnels and mysterious lights, also a lot of the craters emit blue light and some seem once covered in glass domes… NASA will not show any of it of course.. to keep us dumb

  27. I'd assume if that cold patches surround the craters that they've blown away lunar dust or what ever it's called and that the dust or top soil retains heat, so the areas left exposed loose heat a lot quicker as there's less material to retain heat once the sun goes down.

  28. Maybe the cooling is due to the clearing of the regelith by the impact and the exposed rock cools quicker than the covered surface, the regelith acts as a type of blanket retaining the heat.

  29. How big is the rover if you can spot it from space? I couldn't even spot a car in the picture of New York at its elevation.

  30. The video is awesome, as always… But hey, YouTube, come on!! A FOUR MINUTES LONG ad???? I know we can skip it, but…

  31. Something that always struck me is how lucky the guys on the moon were, given the impressive amount of craters. Since there's no atmosphere – provided protection, they were (and will always be) constantly exposed to high danger!! I also wonder how frequently the moon is bumped by those flying dangerous stones… And why it was never captured in video.

  32. maybe fine dust that settles after the impact around the crater slightly insulates the surface making it cooler?

  33. Excellent instructional video.

    I knew of LRO and, basically, what it did. But I was somehow surprised that it had been gathering science for 10 years already! It's also disappointing that one of the only ways I hear of LRO discoveries is through excellent YouTube videos like ASTRUM's.

    I am now subscribed.

  34. Ok so where is the cities, structures, UFOs seen by Bruce Sees All on the moon via his own telescope??? However, NASA already using Lunar Orbiter but can't find any of those….also where are the aliens because even China-E Rover can't find any of the above at the dark side of the moon.

  35. About the cold spots around craters. Couldn't that just be the metal that liquified and then moved on the impact? I would guess that metal would get alittle colder than stone up in the dark cold space. Since it can conduct heat and cold better. Or have they done research on that part? Because of all the meteors i have heard of on earth. There is always metal in it in som sort of form. So is this a possibillity

  36. Most of what you call impact craters were caused by electrical discharges during a time when the solar system was highly magnetized and the planets were closer together.

  37. Dude, idk if it's your accent or something but I always feel so chill whenever I watch your videos. Keep up the good work

  38. Hey Astrum,
    Have you dug any info on the Apollo missions being a mission to get topsoil from the surface to determine whether the Sun goes into Solar Nova cataclysmic cycles?
    They found these little glass ball bearings that weren't from any volcanic magma flows as if the Sun ejected them and they spun out at rapid speeds. interesting is how the mission was called "Apollo" Greek god of the Sun.

  39. So why are they all circular or even pentagonal? If they are all impacts wouldn’t most be ovoid in shape…?

  40. I think craters are sinkhole areas filled by settlement. Of course it would not be as Earth, but the Swiss cheese effect only bothered actual cheese or leaderships.

  41. 실제 달을 찍은건가요? 요즘cg가너무많아서요…. 아무리 HD촬영이라지만… 믿음이안가고 정말 우주가 존재하는지도…… 믿음이 안가고요…..ㅜ.ㅜ.

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